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Preservative and Treatment of some Industrial Tree Plantation Species and Non-wood forest products

Background

Wood and some Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFP) are organic materials. Under favorable conditions, they are subject to attacks of various wood deteriorating agents such as fungi, termites and powder post beetles. These living organisms use wood and some NWFP (bamboo, rattan, vines, etc) as source of their food and shelter or as incubation place for their young. This results to the fast deterioration of wood/NWFP thus shortening their service life. Although there are wood species that are resistant to destroying organisms, these are no longer available as these come from the natural-grown forest stands.

With the issuance of Executive Order 23 implementing the indefinite log ban, the supply of raw materials can only be sourced from ITPS and NWFP, which mostly do not have inherent natural durability. The total importation of pesticides in 2009 alone amounted to 308,000 kg valued at USD 1.5M (Foreign Statistics of the Philippines 2009). These include wood preservatives used to control fungal and insect attack on wood, wood products and some NWFP.

Wood treatment has been practiced long before industrialization but the chemicals used pose threat to the environment and humans. Thus, there is a need for a continuous search for an environment-friendly, biodegradable and human-friendly chemicals and methods for preservatives.

Natural durability of wood refers to its ability to resist attacks of bio-deteriorating organisms. It is measured by examining the progressive decay of small wooden stakes buried in the ground. The stakes are periodically sampled to determine how much degradation has taken place over time. Natural durability cannot be measured in one country and used in another due to different climatic conditions. The difference in the environmental conditions can accelerate fungal and termite degradation and the range of fungal and insect species may give greater or lower deterioration rates.

Preservative treatment is the application of chemicals to prolong the service life of wood/wood products and NWFP. Depending on the type of the commodity and environmental conditions, preservative treatment may prolong the service life of wood/NWFP by 5 to 15 times. However, treatability and efficacy are significantly dependent and related on the anatomical-, chemical-, physical- and mechanical properties of wood/NWFP thus these should be considered.

Further, identification of wood and NWFP is necessary before any tests or treatment is done. In addition, the condition of material prior to treatment, treatment method, treatment schedule and preservative used also affect preservative treatment.

At present, the chemicals or preservatives used in treatment are those whose efficacy was tested at the Institute and are commercially available in the market. These chemicals have somehow raised questions on environmental issues. Although proper use and disposal are part of the technology transfer and training on wood treatment, the use of less-toxic and environment friendly chemical is of prime importance.

The program has various project components that will cover the following: basic properties of some ITPS and NWFP; development of less toxic, environment-friendly and biodegradable chemical preservatives; establishment of preservative treatment schedules; characterization of the active components of some ITPS/NWFP to be used for preservatives; evaluation of the efficacy of chemical components/derivatives; and other aspects that are directly or indirectly related to preservation/treatment of wood/NWFP but have bearing on the durability of the raw materials and products.

General Objectives

To establish appropriate treatment methods/schedule/application for wood/NWFP and develop environment-friendly preservatives.

Specific Objectives

  • To determine the resistance of some ITPS and NWFP against wood destroying organisms;
  • To develop treatment schedules for some ITPS (earpod, umbrella tree, yemane, bagras, mangium and mahogany) and NTWP (bamboo, forest vines, etc)
  • To determine the anatomical, physical, mechanical and chemical properties of ITPS and NWFP;
  • To relate the properties of ITPS and NWFP to resistance and treatability;
  • To formulate preservatives from indigenous materials and evaluate their efficacy against wood-destroying organisms;
  • To provide wood and herbarium identification services to wood and non-wood-based industries including technical/basic botanical information on Philippine plants; and properly identify ITPS and NWFP and indigenous materials used in different R&D projects.

Priority Areas

  • Increasing Industry Competitiveness
  • Countryside Development and Inclusive Growth

Deliverables

Innovative, cost-effective and appropriate technologies that enable MSMEs to develop and produce competitive products that meet world-class standards.

  • Information on the natural durability, anatomical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of some ITPS and NWFP;
  • Suitable schedules for effective treatment of some ITPS and NWFP shall have been established
  • Natural preservatives from indigenous materials shall have been developed;
  • Wood and herbarium identification services shall have been provided to wood and non-wood forest-based industries, DENR, DBM, DepEd and other government agencies;
  • ITPS and NWFP used in R&D projects shall have been determined/verified that would support findings on their natural durability.
  • Production of insect and fungal-free ITPS/NWFP.

Research Projects

  1. Non-Wood Raw Materials for R&D (2013 to 2017)
  2. Resistance of Jarrah (E. marginata Donn. Ex. Smith), Timor White Gum (E. urophylla S.T. Blake), Lemon-scented gum [Corymbia citriodora (Hook) K.D.Hill & L.A.S Johnson], Umbrella tree (Musanga cecropioides R. Br. Ex Tedlie) and Earpod [Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb.] to Fungal and Insect Attack (2013 to 2016)
  3. Natural durability of Forest Woody vines and Giant Bamboo [Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f) Backer ex Hayne (2013 to 2016)
  4. Property Evaluation of Plantation-grown Umbrella Tree (Musanga cecropioides R. Br. Ex Tedlie) and Toog [Petersianthus quadrialatus (Merr.) Merr.] - (Chemical Properties/RBL) & P&M Properties (2013 to 2015)
  5. Stem anatomy of some economically important woody vines (2014 to 2016)
  6. Wood anatomy and fiber morphology of plantation-grown earpod [Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb] and Toog [Petersianthus quadrialatus (Merr.) Merr.] (2013 to 2016)
  7. Effect of Insect and Fungal attack on the physico-mechanical properties of ITPS (2014 to 2016)
  8. FPRDI Herbarium and Xylarium for R&D (2013 to 2016)
  9. Upgrading and Maintenance of the FPRDI Xylarium and Herbarium Information System (2013 to 2014)
  10. Nano-based Preservatives from Essential Oils of Plantation-grown Lemon-scented gum [Corymbia citriodora (Hook) K.D. Hill & Johnson] and Pili (Canarium luzonicum) Resin (2013 to 2014)
  11. Characterization and Bioassay of Active Wood Components of Natural Preservatives from Selected Philippine Plants (2014 to 2016)
  12. Identification of Anti-microbial and Anti-fungal constituents of Albizzia Lebbeckoides bark (2013 to 2015)
  13. Development of natural preservatives from indigenous materials: Makabuhay [Tinospora glabra (Burm. f.) Merr.] and Luhang dalaga (Euphorbia tithymaloides) (2013 to 2015)
  14. Protection and Preservation of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] Petioles Against Insect and Fungal Attack (2013 to 2014)
  15. Protection and Preservation of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] Petioles Against Insect and Fungal Attack (2013 to 2014)
  16. Preservative Treatment of ITPS and Giant Bamboo for Power and Telecommunication Poles Using Copper Azole Preservativ (2013 to 2015)
  17. Control of Wood Destroying Termites Using Carbon Dioxide (2014 to 2016)
  18. Preservative Treatment of Umbrella tree (Musanga cecropioides R. Br. Ex Tedlie) and Toog [Petersianthus quadrialatus (Merr.) Merr.] (2013 to 2015)
  19. Preservation of the natural color of yellow and striated bamboo culms (2016)
  20. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Various Preservative Systems Against Wood Destroying Organisms (2015 to 2016)
  21. Pressure Treatment of ITPS with commercially available water-borne preservatives (2017)
  22. Evaluation of Fire Resistant Characteristics of Wood and Non-Wood Materials using TGA (2017)
  23. Thermal Properties Using TGA and DSC of some ITPS and NWFP (2013 to 2014)
  24. Dichotomous Key to the Identification of Philippine Trees (2016 to 2017)
  25. Differentiation of Closely Related Philippine Timbers Using SEM (2016 to 2017)
  26. APG Grouping of Philippine Trees (2016 to 2017)
  27. Euphorbia tithymaloides: Propagation in Mined Areas and Utilization of the Plant's Extract as Wood Preservative (NRCP-funded) (2014 to 2015)
  28. Performance Evaluation of Organic-based Preservative from Five Philippine Plant Species in the Preservation and Control of Biodeteriorating Organisms in Bamboo (PCAARRD-funded) (2014 to 2016)
  29. Characterization and Bioassay of Active Wood Components of Natural Preservatives from Selected Philippine Plants (PCAARRD-funded) (2014 to 2016)
  30. Design and Development of Portable Treating Plant for Bamboo and Other Wood Products